In order to deliver that transformation, new energy technologies will need to get better- cheaper, more efficient, more powerful-and the companies that sell them will need to get smarter, and make money.

Sure, today’s solar panels are being installed at a rapid clip in places like the U.S. and China, but making batteries cheap enough to store that solar energy at night has proven a harder issue to solve.

Following in the footsteps of the computing and internet industries, entrepreneurs and startups will play a key role in developing these new energy technologies.

Building an energy startup has proven notoriously difficult.

There have been some outlier Valley energy success stories, like Musk’s own electric car firm Tesla and his solar installer SolarCity.

As a result of the many missteps, few venture capitalists are still willing to invest in early-stage energy startups that are using hardcore science or engineering to make new energy technologies.

While these groups might not be household names, their success could prove crucial in determining if important energy technologies will ever see the light of day, and will be able to help transform the way the world generates and uses energy.